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Bishop urges U.S. to remain committed to Iran nuclear deal



WASHINGTON — If the United States abandons a multinational agreement that limits the ability of Iran to develop nuclear weapons, the incentive for North Korea to negotiate about its nuclear weapons program would be weakened, said the chairman of the U.S. bishops’ Committee on International Justice and Peace. Read more »

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Just-war tests not met in North Korea situation, ethicists say


Catholic News Service

WASHINGTON — The just-war criteria that would justify armed conflict with North Korea over its nuclear testing and threats to launch missiles have not been met, said ethicists interviewed by Catholic News Service.

Those criteria include right intention, last resort and proportionality.

Lightning strikes near Minot Air Force Base in Minot, North Dakota, Aug. 8. The Pentagon has put all U.S. military installations on alert in the wake of North Korea’s threats about using missiles. (CNS photo/U.S. Air Force via Reuters)

“Preventive war in North Korea would be morally unjustifiable,” said Gerard Powers, director of Catholic Peacebuilding Studies at the University of Notre Dame’s Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. “That’s what the Trump administration is proposing, the preventive use of military force.

“As it was in Iraq, it is a major departure from international legal norms and ethics, and accepted ethical norms on the use of force,” he added. “Bellicose rantings by North Korea, or anyone else, don’t constitute just cause for the use of force.”

“Preventive was is a war of aggression. The possible use of nuclear weapons takes it to a whole new order of magnitude,” Powers continued. “The U.S. bishops have said for many years that nuclear war is morally impermissible. The Second Vatican Council said the destruction of whole cities, which is what would happen in a nuclear war, was a full condemnation. … That’s what would be inevitable if there were to be a nuclear war with North Korea.

“So a nuclear war would be morally reprehensible. Period.”

“If you look at the criteria of the (just-war) principles, there has to be just cause and the right intention. There has to be proportionality. We’re talking about going to war,” said Necla Tschirgi, a professor of human security and peacebuilding, at the University of San Diego.

“President (Donald) Trump has been threatening North Korea with extermination on the grounds that they have nuclear weapons,” Tschirgi added. “There’s a question of proportionality, a question of last resort, the criteria of probability of success, proper authority and all these things are really to be questioned very closely where we are in relationship with North Korea at this point in time.”

In the Catechism of the Catholic Church, there are four conditions for a war to be just, all of which must be met: The damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave and certain; all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective; there must be serious prospects of success; and the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders greater than the evil to be eliminated.

Tschirgi said the Vatican is currently considering whether any war can be considered just, given the power of modern weapons of war, such as the nuclear missiles at issue with North Korea.

“North Korea has nuclear capabilities,” Tschirgi told CNS. “Many administrations have been dealing with this problem through different strategies.”

Those strategies have been met with limited success. Western nations have complained that North Korea is unpredictable, but North Korea expert Andrew Yeo, an associate professor of politics at The Catholic University of America in Washington, said North Korea’s mindset is not that of other nations.

That, according to Yeo, can be traced to the Korean War of the early 1950s. North Korea signed the armistice to end the war, but South Korea refused, lest it be seen as legitimizing the North Korean government. South Korea hopes for a reunified Korea, which is opposite of the intent of the ruling Kim family of North Korea; Kim Jong Un has headed the north since the death five years ago of his father, Kim Jong Il.

North Korea embraces an “us against the world” mentality that makes it look askance at most foreign aid. Even the 1994-98 famine didn’t result in an opening to other nations, but Kim Jong Il allowed his countrymen to grow crops on their land to sell at strictly regulated markets. Since pay for all jobs in North Korea is severely stratified and pretty much frozen in place, lower-income Koreans put in less effort at their state-given jobs and more in their entrepreneurial endeavors. Yeo said.

“Their rationale is to survive and the best way to do that is through nuclear weapons,” he added about the country’s leaders. Engagement doesn’t work “because usually the assumptions in the past are if you engage with North Korea you start with a freeze and you get North Korea to halt its nuclear tests. Over time you might be able to reward North Korea with economic aid or humanitarian assistance.” Until now, though, Yeo said, no one has been able to convince North Korea that “there’s a better way forward than being a nuclear pariah state.”

Still, said Joseph Capizzi, a professor of moral theology at Catholic University, “we’re not at the situation where we’ve exhausted diplomacy, which seems to be gaining some traction. The Chinese are interested in exerting diplomatic force. North Korea seems to be backing away from its mention of Guam” as a target for one of its nuclear missiles.

“The (just-war) criterion we’re thinking through here is last resort,” Capizzi said. “Are we at last resort where the only means is military means? No.”

Since it has been 72 years since the only nuclear weapons were ever deployed in warfare, most people in the world have little idea of the destruction such a bomb would wreak.

“On the other hand,” Capizzi said, “there are people in North Korea, South Korea and parts of Vietnam who lived through the experience of civilian bombing that was associated with those campaigns, that it was similar enough that it would be in their memories and provoke significant anxiety about any contest between the United States and North Korea. 

“That’s a very important factor that looms in the background about the force, or threat of force, either by North Korea or the United States.”


Follow Pattison on Twitter: @MeMarkPattison.

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Catholics on Guam pray for peace amid threats by North Korea


HAGATNA, Guam — The Catholic Church on Guam is urging its members and all people on the island to be prayerful and stay centered in Christ amid threats of missile attacks by North Korea.

Coadjutor Archbishop Michael J. Byrnes of Agana asked all priests to promote prayers of peace at all Masses Aug. 13 as tensions continue, following threats by North Korea dictator Kim Jong Un to attack this American territory in the Marianas Islands.

A woman in a hotel in Tamuning, Guam, reads the Pacific Daily News with the headline “Missile Watch.” Aug. 12. (CNS photo/Erik De Castro, Reuters)

“In your Masses this Sunday, especially in the prayer of the faithful, please offer prayers for peace between our nations, just resolution of differences, and prudence in both speech and action,” Archbishop Byrnes said in a message to all priests of the Archdiocese of Agana Aug. 11.

“Please also offer prayers for the men and women of our military, especially those whom we host on Guam, that they might find grace for diligence and courage as they execute their respective duties,” he said.

Guam has long had a high strategic military importance to the United States because of its location in the Marianas Islands and has been home to several U.S. military bases for many decades. B-52 bombers were regularly deployed from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and ’70s.

Residents of this predominantly Catholic island community first woke up to the alarming news of North Korea threats to Guam Aug. 9. The archdiocese issued a message to all Catholics and the community in general that same day urging everyone to “stay grounded in the peace of Christ.”

“Look to God during these difficult times when world peace is threatened and pray always,” the archdiocese said.

That message by Father Jeff San Nicolas, the coadjutor archbishop’s delegate general, cited the Gospel of John: “Peace I leave with you; my peace I give to you. Not as the world gives do I give it to you. Do not let your hearts be troubled or afraid.”

The archdiocese also echoed the message of Guam Gov. Eddie Calvo asking everyone to remain calm and trust that the security of the island is in good hands with local and national defense forces in place to address such threats.

In his Aug. 11 message, Archbishop Byrnes said, “Ever since being appointed the Coadjutor Archbishop of Agana, I have been both struck and encouraged by Isaiah 33:2-6. … It speaks to our current situation very well:

“O Lord, be gracious to us; we wait for you. Be our arm every morning, our salvation in the time of trouble. At the tumultuous noise peoples flee; when you lift yourself up, nations are scattered, and your spoil is gathered as the caterpillar gathers; as locusts leap, it is leapt upon. The Lord is exalted, for he dwells on high; he will fill Zion with justice and righteousness, and he will be the stability of your times, abundance of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge; the fear of the Lord is Zion’s treasure.”

“We have strong encouragement from the Lord Jesus, to trust that our Father is the source of our salvation both spiritually and practically,” the archbishop continued. “Jesus is still on the throne, and we can be confident that He will work out his will in every situation,” the archbishop also told the priests.”

He added, “We do not ‘put our trust in princes, in mortal man in whom there is no help’ (Psalm 146:3). The Lord himself is the source of our stability in any time.”

The archdiocese also encouraged people to join an Aug. 13 rosary rally and pray for peace during a celebration of the 100th year anniversary of Our Lady of Fatima in the capital of Hagatna.

The rally was organized by Catholic laypeople as part of a worldwide call for praying the rosary in the public square.

The Guam Homeland Security/Office of Civil Defense planned to make a presentation on emergency preparedness related to the North Korea threat for clergy, Catholic school administrators and chancery staff Aug. 17.

The presentation had been scheduled even before the threat by North Korea but the archdiocese asked that it be held sooner because of current developments.

— By Tony C. Diaz


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Ex-Vatican diplomat: U.S., North Korea must return to negotiating table


Catholic News Service

VATICAN CITY — The United States and North Korea must return to the negotiating table and focus on improving the quality of life of their people rather than on the might of their advanced weaponry, said a former Vatican diplomat. Read more »

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Have you heard? A U.N. treaty, backed by Vatican and U.S. bishops, has banned nuclear weapons


Catholic News Service

The passage of a United Nations treaty banning the possession of nuclear weapons comes at a time when the majority of world’s nations are frustrated with the slow pace of nuclear disarmament.

Even with such a pact, years in the making, there is no timeline for total disarmament, arms control experts told Catholic News Service. Read more »

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Pope: U.S., North Korea need diplomatic solution to escalating tensions


Catholic News Service

ABOARD THE PAPAL FLIGHT FROM CAIRO — A diplomatic solution must be found to the escalating tension between North Korea and the United States, Pope Francis told journalists.

“The path (to take) is the path of negotiation, the path of a diplomatic solution,” he said when asked about U.S. President Donald Trump’s decision to send Navy warships to the region in response to North Korea’s continued missile tests and threats to launch nuclear strikes against South Korea, Japan and the United States.

Pope Francis listens to a question from Vera Shcherbakova of the Itar-Tass news agency while talking with journalists aboard his flight from Cairo to Rome April 29. (CNS/Paul Haring)

Pope Francis listens to a question from Vera Shcherbakova of the Itar-Tass news agency while talking with journalists aboard his flight from Cairo to Rome April 29. (CNS/Paul Haring)

“What do you say to these leaders who hold responsibility for the future of humanity,” the pope was asked, during a Q-and-A with journalists on the flight to Rome April 29 after a 27-hour trip to Cairo.

“I will call on them. I’m going to call on them like I have called on the leaders of different places,” he said.

There are many facilitators and mediators around the world who are “always ready to help” with negotiations, the pope said.

The situation in North Korea, he added, has been heated for a long time, “but now it seems it has heated up too much, no?”

“I always call (for) resolving problems through the diplomatic path, negotiations” because the future of humanity depends on it, he said.

Pope Francis said his contention that the Third World War already is underway and is being fought “piecemeal” also can be seen in places where there are internal conflicts like in the Middle East, Yemen and parts of Africa.

“Let’s stop. Let’s look for a diplomatic solution,” he said. “And there, I believe that the United Nations has a duty to regain its leadership (role) a bit because it has been watered down.”

When asked if he would want to meet with President Trump when the U.S. leader is in Italy in late May, the pope said, “I have not been informed yet by the (Vatican) secretary of state about a request being made.”

But he added, “I receive every head of state who asks for an audience.”

A journalist with German media asked the pope about the controversy he sparked April 22 for saying some refugee camps are like concentration camps.

“For us Germans obviously that is a very, very serious term. People say it was a slip of the tongue. What did you want to say?” the reporter asked.

“No, it was not a slip of the tongue,” Pope Francis said, adding that there are some refugee camps in the world, but definitely not in Germany, that “are real concentration camps.”

When centers are built to lock people up, where there is nothing to do and they can’t leave, that is a “lager,” he said, referring to the German word for concentration camps.

Another reporter asked how people should interpret his speeches to government officials when he calls on them to support peace, harmony and equality for all citizens, and whether it reflected him supporting that government.

The pope said that with all 18 trips he has taken to various countries during his pontificate, he always hears the same concern.

However, when it comes to local politics, “I do not get involved,” he said.

“I talk about values,” he said, and then it is up to each individual to look and judge whether this particular government or nation or person is “delivering these values.”

When asked if he had had a chance to run off to see the pyramids, the pope said, “Well, you know that today at six in this morning two of my assistants went to see” them.

When asked if he wished he had gone with them, too, the pope said, “Ah, yes.”

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Veterans get hero’s welcome after visit to war memorials in Washington


Catholic News Service

MIAMI — Minnesota native and Key West retiree Raymond Blazevic stills vividly remembers being drafted into the U.S. Navy and joining 70,000 other recruits at a boot camp just south of the Canadian border during World War II.

He also remembers well serving in not only that war but two others — Vietnam and Korea, where he was captured after his plane crashed north of Kumsong, North Korea.

World War II veteran Carl Muscarello of All Saints Parish in Sunrise, Fla., and his guardian, Sandy Thomas, pose Oct. 29 in front of the Iwo Jima Memorial in Arlington, Va., across the Potomac River from Washington. (CNS photo/The Florida Catholic)

World War II veteran Carl Muscarello of All Saints Parish in Sunrise, Fla., and his guardian, Sandy Thomas, pose Oct. 29 in front of the Iwo Jima Memorial in Arlington, Va., across the Potomac River from Washington. (CNS photo/The Florida Catholic)

While his co-pilot was never accounted for, Blazevic was listed as missing in action and presumed dead in 1954. Later, he was awarded the Purple Heart, the Combat Action Ribbon, the Korean Service Medal, the United Nations Service Medal, the National Defense Service Medal, the Korean Presidential Unit Citation and the Republic of Korea War Service Medal.

“The most interesting thing was that was I was with all the senior officers and they finally forced a lot of them to make confessions,” said Blazevic, 91, a member of Mary, Star of the Sea Parish in Key West, adding, “It took two years of negotiations and we were released.”

A career soldier, he then served in Vietnam in the reconnaissance squadron and more maintenance positions, “working seven days a week while the college kids were revolting in the USA because they didn’t want to be drafted,” he told the Florida Catholic, Miami’s archdiocesan newspaper. “It didn’t bother me that we didn’t have a parade, and I had a lot of work and was keeping busy.”

Blazevic finally got something of a welcome parade in late October. He was among nearly 80 veterans of war to travel recently with Honors Flight South Florida, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to transport World War II veterans to Washington so they can visit war memorials dedicated to American men and women who made the ultimate sacrifice.

Blazevic’s son-in-law, John McMahon of Key West, accompanied him on the trip after reading about the program in the local newspapers. The program is designed to make World War II a priority and continue with veterans from wars thereafter, and the recent trip included a number of South Florida Catholics from all three counties of the Miami Archdiocese, according to local organizer Stan Bostic.

Most of the veterans were accompanied by a family member or volunteer guardian and were met by a long line of cheering well-wishers at the Miami International Airport upon their return from the one-day visit.

“They lined people up in a snake through the airport so that these WWII veterans coming through this procession line can finally be welcomed home,” said Bostic, who is an original founding member of the local Honors Flight program and a member of Our Lady of Lourdes Parish in Kendall. Bostic also serves as national director of communications for Rick Case Automotive Group.

According to Honors Flight, the World War II generation, often referred to as “the Greatest Generation,” is dwindling quickly as a group, with one such veteran estimated to die every 90 seconds.

In Broward County, Sam DiTullo, a member of St. Stephen Parish in Pembroke Pines, also joined the Honors Flight delegation, accompanied by his son-in-law, Tom Pattison, who worked for the military as a civilian for 30 years. A native of Beacon, New York, DiTullo was 18 years old in 1994 when he served during World War II, entering the theater of war at the beaches of Normandy shortly after the famed invasion there.

“He had never been to Washington and never seen any of these memorials so it was really exciting,” said Pattison of his father-in-law. “It is not that we ignored our veterans back in those years it is simply that not everybody got a ticker-tape parade; people came back and went back to their jobs and to their girlfriends, so this is great,” he added. “I love the whole concept and was really excited to be a part of this.”

Carl Muscarello, a member of All Saints Parish in Sunrise, recalled being drafted at the height of World War II and being assigned to ship repair units based in the Pacific and in Staten Island, New York.

“If President Truman didn’t drop the bomb i might not be talking to you today,” Muscarello said, recalling his years of service. “WW II was a sad time for me; six of my brother’s friends were killed. I was 15 years old in Brooklyn when the war broke out and I remember running home to tell my mother that the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. A lot of them did not come home, but i did my best. The only time i heard a gun go off when I was on a firing range.”

Muscarello, who was part of the Honors Flight trip, said he had been to see the war memorials previously but enjoyed meeting other vets. “One of the reasons was that I was invited to go was that many of the WWII vets are dying and they are having trouble filling up the flights since not many of us left.”


Tracy writes for the Florida Catholic, newspaper of the Archdiocese of Miami.

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Escape from North Korea — Archmere students hear survivor’s story of living a new life for others

November 19th, 2015 Posted in Featured, Our Diocese Tags: , , ,


CLAYMONT – A North Korean man, who risked his life to help support his family as a boy and then again in an attempt to find freedom away from his homeland, visited Archmere Academy recently to tell his story of torture, persistence, escape and reward. Read more »

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Viewpoint: When global problems heat up


If there’s anything good to say about the state of the world this month, it’s that at least we’re going to have nice weather for the apocalypse.

The poet Robert Frost once noted that “some say the world will end in fire and some say ice.” Who knew it could end during one of the balmy summer days we’ve enjoyed in the Diocese of Wilmington this year?

It’s not the heat; it’s the history of recent world conflicts and the dangers they portend. Here’s a review of this summer’s news: Read more »

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Bishops hope North Korea’s regime change will bring peace


Catholic News Service

VATICAN CITY — The death of North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has opened a window of opportunity for renewed dialogue and possible reunification of the peninsula, said two South Korean bishops.

Bishop Peter Kang U-il of Cheju, president of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Korea, said the leader’s death Dec. 17 “may be the beginning of a turning point for the path of the reunification of the Koreas.”

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